According to the tradition, it was there that the "dark vine" grew-a type, seemingly, of the tree of life. After passing to other rulers, the government of Susa fell to Ebari, father of Silhaha, during whose reign Simti-Silhak ruled in Babylonia. He regards this type as being represented among the soldiers as well as among the people conquered by Naram-Sin about 3000 B.C. But in recent years a number of eminent authorities have maintained that it was at the northern end of the Dead Sea, in the vicinity of Jericho. of twilight mediocrity under Gutian rulers until they were thrown out by Utuhegal, the en(si) of Uruk, c. 2120 b.c. Sumerian myths discussed the role of deities (the Birth of the Moon God), vocation and creation of the world and of man, paradise and evil. (5) The Extension of Elamite Authority Westward.Attapaksu (or Attahusu), Silhaha's sister's son, then became "shepherd of Susa." A. The Bible records in Genesis 11 that all mankind came to the Land of Shinar and make a name for themselves under the leadership of Nimrod, so they built a tower at Babel, a tower that would reach to heaven. Sargon first attacked the Chaldeans and defeated them at Dur-Athara, and, entering Elam, stormed and captured the cities of the land. In Jerusalem for Hanukkah. It is a non-Sem., agglutinative, inflected and part tonal speech written in the cuneiform script which would seem to have been their invention. Daniel 8:2 I saw in the vision; now it was so, that when I saw, I was in the citadel of Susa, which is in the province of Elam; and I saw in the vision, and I was by the river Ulai. In 682 B.C. New International Version (NIV). Comparison with the Semitic Idiom:Halevy's contention, that Sumerian is simply "an allography" for the expression of Sera Babylonian, seems to be untenable, as they differ not only in words, but also in grammar; moreover, Sumerian had a dialect, called by the natives "woman's tongue." Save 15% for life on BibleGateway+ with code SPRINGSTUDY15. Indeed, after this dynasty no other kings classed themselves as gods in Mesopotamia. Kudur-mabuk of Larsa was succeeded by his son Eri-Aku (probably the Iri-Agun of Larsa of the Elamite texts), and if he be really, as seems probable, the Arioch of Genesis 14:1, 9, then this is also the period when Chedorlaomer ruled in Elam. (5) Adab:Adab, now called Bismaya, the city of Mah, the goddess of reproduction. In 11:2 Shinar is described as the land of the plain where migrants from the East . Babylon. (18) The Later State of Elam.After Cyrus, the history of Elam was that of Persia, of which it henceforth formed a part. From there, the LORD scattered them abroad on the surface of all the earth. Located in what is now present-day Iraq, Babylon played a pivotal role in the history of Israel. This latter was the capital of Cyrus the Great and his immediate predecessors, the tract having been conquered apparently by Sispis (Teispes), his ancestor, at the end of the 6th century B.C. Use. The Name and Its Etymology: The city over which Arioch (Eri-Aku) and other Babylonian kings ruled ( Genesis 14:1 ). There seems also to have been a shrine to Nergal, god of war, which was restored by King Sin-gamil. ANET 1950), 27-59, 159. Bears, panthers, wild boars, wolves, wild cats, foxes, jackals, and several species of wild dogs, however, still exist. Daniel 1:2 The Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with part of the vessels of the house of God; and he carried them into the land of Shinar to the house of his god: and he brought the vessels into the treasure house of his god. Because many ancient regions aren't precisely defined, I consulted atlases to determine where the biblical region is located and used that data to build the isobands. probably took place, according to Scheil, during the reign of Silbina-hamru-Laqamar. Later on the corresponding term seems to have been Kar-Dunias ("the territory of the god Dunias," to all appearance a term introduced by the Kassite rulers). It is the modern 'Abu-habbah, "father of grain." Genesis 14:10 Now the valley of Siddim was full of tar pits; and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, and they fell there, and those who remained fled to the hills. Elam apparently regained its independence, however, during the time of Uruwus king of Kis, who invaded the country, and brought back considerable spoil. It is thought that the Euphrates must have flowed nearer to the city in ancient times, as the Gilgames legend relates that that hero and his companion Enkidu washed their hands in the stream after having killed the divine bull sent by the goddess Ishtar to destroy them. Delitzsch, Wo lag das Paradies? du'-ra (dura'): The name of the plain on which Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, set up the great golden image which all his subjects were ordered to worship ( Daniel 3:1 ). The northern part of ancient Babylonia was called Akkad. Jeremiah 49:35 Thus says Yahweh of Armies: Behold, I will break the bow of Elam, the chief of their might. for the land, is today used to describe the whole of ancient Babylonia before the Sem. The water-courses are full of fish, among them being the barbel, silurus, carp (sometimes of great size), and gurnards similar to those of the Nile. Sumerian has no proven relation to any other language, ancient or modern. The strange thing, however, is, that the name of this last does not occur in any recognizable form, unless it be the Kudurlahgumal of certain half-legendary inscriptions (see CHEDORLAOMER). The Syriac Sen'ar5. The great capital of the tract, however, was Susa (Shushan), whence its Greek name of Susiana, interchanging with Elymais, from the Semitic Elam.2. Thus Nanna(r), or Suen the later moon-god Sin, was god of Ur; An, the sky-god at Uruk, Enki(Ea) god of the deep waters and mysteries at the sea port of Eridu. Easton's Bible Dictionary Sign up now for the latest news and deals from Bible Gateway! The early conquest of the cities of Babylonia, or their federation into one great kingdom, is here ascribed to Nimrod. (9) Lagas:Some distance East of Warka was the territory of Lagas, now Tel-loh-a little state, rather in accessible, but of considerable importance to the antiquarian, which is a testimonial to the advance in civilization which it had made. (3) The Suzerainty of the Kings of Ur.Somewhat later came Idadu I, his son Kal-Ruhuratir, and his grandson Idadu II, who in turn occupied the throne during the time of Bur-Sin, king of Ur. [2] This location of Shinar is evident from its description as encompassing both Babel/Babylon (in northern Babylonia) and Erech/Uruk (in southern Babylonia). The Bible mentions that the ark of Noah rested on the mountains of Ararat, not Mount Ararat in particular. Its kings and viceroys were among the most renowned, though apparently unknown outside their own domains. (8) Elam Again Supreme.Later came the military exploits of Sutruk-Nahhunte, who invaded Babylonia, slew the king Zagaga-sum-iddina, and helped by his son Kutir-Nahhunte, destroyed Sippar, and took away the stele of Naram-Sin, the code of Hammurabi, and several other monuments, which were carefully preserved at Susa. The Syriac Sen'ar:All these comparisons tend to show that the Babylonian equivalent of Shinar is not any of the above, and as yet has not, in fact, been found. The death of Sennacherib and the troubles attending the accession of Esarhaddon encouraged Nabuzer-napisti-Itsir, son of Merodach-baladan, again to raise the standard of revolt. Also, during a famine in Elam, certain Elamite tribes migrated into Assyria to escape the scarcity, and were kindly treated by Assur-bani-apli, who had succeeded his father on the Assyrian throne. The balance of evidence is thus in favor of the equation Shinar=Babylonia used by the Heb. When Ur-Nammu died in battle his son Shulgi succeeded to the throne. A varied lit. and art. The challenge was accepted, with disastrous results, for Hurbatila was captured by the Babylonian king at the place named. NET Bible When the people moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and settled there. Umman-Menanu died at the end of the year, after a 4 years' reign, and was succeeded by Humba-haldasu I (689-682 B.C. Wisdom lit. The Bible records in Genesis 11 that all mankind came to the Land of Shinar and make a name for themselves under the leadership of Nimrod, so they built a tower at Babel, a tower that would reach to heaven. n-H}#>!NEy$jLWfs5ax'iIN, "PE+DG)N[W(8]);$Uu%k [}*nB. In this way the LXX read Babylonia in Isaiah 11:11 and land of Babylon in Zechariah 5:11. [2][3] Near the north end the depth descends to 1,300 ft., whereas for many miles out from the south end it is very shallow, so that at low water a ford exists, and is occasionally used, from the north end of the salt mountain across to el-Lisan.The precipitous salt cliffs of Jebel Usdum which border the southwest corner of the Dead Sea would indicate that, in comparatively recent times, there had been abrupt subsidence of a good many feet in the bottom of the Dead Sea at that end.Such subsidences of limited areas and in connection with earthquakes are by no means uncommon. W. F. Albright, Shinar-anar and Its Monarch Amraphel. Art in the Archaic Period, That of the Viceroys, and That of the Kings 17. Their deities, however, always had hair and beard, implying that they came from a different, though possibly related, stock. If you want a modern-day reference,. Harosheth-hagoiim ( Judg 4:2, 13) may be a specific locality . In the Persian version this appears as (H)uwaja or (H)uwazha, whence the modern Huz or Khuzistan. civilization developed from the need to organize local labor to control the resources of nature and their environment. The Greek form Sen(n)aar shows that, at the time the Septuagint translation was made, there was no tradition that the `ayin was guttural, as the supposed Babylonian forms would lead us to expect. This location of Shinar is evident from its description as encompassing both Babel/Babylon (in northern Babylonia) and Erech/Uruk (in southern Babylonia). This center of learning maintained its independence even after the other states had been absorbed by Hammurabi and his dynasty into the Babylonian empire. New American Bible When they were migrating from the east, they came to a valley in the land of Shinar and settled there. Fauna:The fauna is said at present to be less numerous than formerly. (7) Hurbatila's Challenge to Kuri-galzu.Omitting the names of rulers concerning whom but little or nothing is known, we come to the reign of Untas-Gal, patron of the articles Numerous temples were built by him, and sanctuaries at Susa dedicated. dynasty at Babylon took control and for its inhabitants. Sculpture in Shinar12. In his 31st he defeated Rim-Sin of Larsa, following this up, in his 32nd, by overthrowing the army of Asnunnak. Strabo (xi.13, 1, 6), quoting Nearchus, speaks of "four bandit nations" who occupied the mountains East of the Euphrates-the Amardians or Mardians on the Persian border, the Uxians, and Elymeans on the borders of Persia and Susa, and the Cosseans (Kassites) by the Medes. A Harmony of the Life of Jesus - Four gospel accounts in harmony. Identification:The name given, in the earliest Hebrew records, to Babylonia, later called Babel, or the land of Babel (babhel, 'erets babhel). That the district of Arabistan is poor and barren is due to the carelessness and improvidence of the people, who, like the people of the Turkish province of Bagdad, have neglected the ancient irrigation canals which fertilized the land.6. Ge 10:11 Out of that land went forth Asshur, and built Nineveh, and Rehoboth-ir, and Kla, Ge 10:12 and Resen between Nineveh and Kla--the same is the great city. Roman Empire Map - The most celebrated were the reformer Uru-ka-gina and viceroy Gudea, to whom many erections in the city were due. This action on the part of the Elamites, however, did not save the people from Assyrian vengeance, for Sennacherib invaded and ravaged the country from Ras to Bit-Burnaki. Although the courses have changed dramatically since ancient times we know the area was nearly 700 - 1000 miles long and nearly 300 miles across. proper name, of a location Shinar = Babylonia (= Babylonian umr according to COT Genesis 11:1 and others, > denied by Hal Rev. It contains species both of central Asia, Europe, and, to a certain extent, Africa. Large Map of Israel in the First Century - Click around on the Cities. II, 11; BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA, RELIGION OF, IV, 7; MERODACH; ORION.Edward Mack. Genesis 14:2 that they made war with Bera, king of Sodom, and with Birsha, king of Gomorrah, Shinab, king of Admah, and Shemeber, king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (the same is Zoar). Eight kings reigned for 241,209 years in these five cities and then the flood swept over the earth. Another text lists ten such rulers, but two of these may have been contemporaries, so, though there are superficial similarities between these lists and the ten antideluvian patriarchs (Gen 5) and the pre-flood monarchs of the later Berossus account, no direct correlation is possible. North of Sudan is Egypt; this is where Mizraim dwelled. Ancient Mesopotamia. rulers, with but brief intervals, until conquered by Cyrus the Persian in 539 b.c. History (1) The Earliest Period (2) Sargon of Agade and His Successors (3) The Suzerainty of the Kings of Ur (4) Elam Becomes Predominant 2280 Years B.C. The Assyrians came up with the Elamites at Der, but Te-umman feared to join issue there, and retreating, took up a strong position near his capital, Susa, with his front protected by the river Ulai. There was apparently no ill-will between the two nations, however, for the viceroy of Susa is said to have married a daughter of Ibi-Sin. )(10) Larsa:Somewhat to the Southeast of Warka lay Larsa, the "Ellasar" of Genesis 14:1 (which see). "The land of Shinar" is the old name for Southern Babylonia, afterward called Chaldea ('erets kasdim), and was probably more extensive in territory than the Sumer of the inscriptions in the ancient royal title, "King of Shumer and Accad," since Accad is included here in Shinar. CU2JSf9.7HU[]NERt&^SFRbe/#a0T This map shows the land of Shinar where the Tower of Babel was and the directions the people of Noah's sons traveled in! 221; Zehnpfund, Babylonien in seinen wichtigsten Ruinenstatten, 48.T. The valleys on the Southwest slope belong properly to Babylonia, and could be invaded on that side with ease, but Northeast of the Kebir-Kuh the country is well protected not only against Mesopotamia, on the West, but also against Persia on the East. In all lists it is the tenth who survives the Flood and all display a longevity which, in the Babylonian accounts with ages of more than 20,000 years each, make the life-span of Methuselah (969 years; Gen 5:27) look insignificant. Website by Stormhill Media. The later kings of Babylon sometimes bear the title "king of Eridu," as though rulers of the domain of Paradise. This was the place where migrants from the E settled and built the city and tower of Babel ( 11:2 ). By submitting your email address, you understand that you will receive email communications from Bible Gateway, a division of The Zondervan Corporation, 3900 Sparks Drive SE, Grand Rapids, MI 49546 USA, including commercial communications and messages from partners of Bible Gateway. Daniel 3:1. KZwpyq>?'#-b[Q@ X.V=#n4`,2,'fr1f`]d[ 8RVA2PU -iUp ugwR]z~6&$R UwX$[c]O6 B`wX x[M_1@sIl`w,\"d6Q}$ }{lT*:U*wx o|o~0OoSo~!i85| --ba+'Ui2Ve\oYN+,e\z$s}rZ JaX50?:1y*P$QVD=;~L4E >=u@[h Susa, an important commercial center in the 3rd millennium B.C., became again one of the three capitals of the Pets empire during the rule of the Achemenians.10. G. Pinches. Not so, Elim, though. Go up, Elam; attack! Unless otherwise indicated, all content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. This city was apparently of considerable importance, and the traditional rival of Lagas. But it seems to go beyond the text to assume that the Vale of Siddim was within that circle of vision, for it is said in Genesis 13:12 simply that Lot dwelt "in the cities of the Plain, and moved his tent as far as Sodom." As Elamite and Babylonian sovereign, Kudur-Nahhunte entrusted Susa to a feudatory ruler, and among the viceroys who governed Elam may be mentioned Sirukdu', who constructed at Susa, and Temti-Agun, his sister's son, who built in that city the temple to Isme-karab, "for the health of Kutir-Nahhunte and his family." Jesus' Baptism and Temptation. texts (so W. F. Albright, AJSL XL [1953], 125-127). This was the first organized system of idolatry recorded after the flood. A king of Shinar (Amraphel) took part in the coalition which raided Sodom and Gomorrah (14:1) and was defeated by Abraham. SIDDIM, VALE OF. I have stopped all of Media's sighing. Genesis 10:9-12 - He was a mighty hunter before The LORD. Notwithstanding the great strength of the allied army, they did not succeed in making headway against the Assyrians. But from the point of view of Palestine, it must mean some part of the great valley of Coele-Syria (Biqa'a). The Tower of Babel. (6) Babylonia Again Supreme.What the history of Elam during this period was remains to be discovered, but Hammurabi, who is identified with the Amraphel of Genesis 14:1, 9, seems to have invaded the country in his 30th year. AYf]M2/3S(J_dHG],`K .Ea!^oI^^#o+ 7R>@m'9 To all appearance his intentions to revolt were reported to the Assyrian king, who at once sent an army and plundered the country, and Tammaritu again fell into Assur-bani-apli's hands. 2 And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there. Start your free trial today. Belonging to Babylon, also, was the renowned city Borsippa, now Birs, or the Birs Nimroud, the traditional site of the Tower of Babel.See BABEL, TOWER OF. After the apparently short reign of Kidin-Hutran came that of Hurpatila (Hurbatila), who, desiring to throw off the Babylonian yoke, challenged Kuri-galzu, king of Babylon, to battle at Dur-Dungi. Conception and Birth of Jesus. lit. David Rohl theorized that the Tower was actually located in Eridu, which was once located on the coast of the Persian Gulf, where there are ruins of a massive, ancient ziggurat worked from bitumen.[6]. During the reign of the little-known Kharacenian king, Aspasine, they made incursions into Babylonia, one of the opponents of this king's generals being Pittit, "the enemy, the Elamite"-a phrase of old standing, apparently. Old Testament Overview - General survey of the Old Testament. (8) Erech:South of Fara lay Unuga, Semitic Uruk, the Biblical ERECH (which see), now Warka. Encyclopedia. He ultimately embarked in a ship on the Persian Gulf with the intention of escaping, but was wrecked, and gave himself up to an Assyrian officer, who sent him to Assyria. The Shinar, Babylonian/Assyrian regions are much closer to the proposed Gihon River. The remains are situated in a large courtyard measuring 350 ft. by 270 ft. As in the case of other Babylonian erections, the corners are directed toward the cardinal points, and its height is about 100 ft. above the desert-plain.As Erech is mentioned with Babylon, Niffer (Calneh) and Eridu, as one of the cities created by Merodach (Nimrod), it is clear that it was classed with the oldest foundations in Babylonia. Jeremiah 49:37 I will cause Elam to be dismayed before their enemies, and before those who seek their life; and I will bring evil on them, even my fierce anger, says Yahweh; and I will send the sword after them, until I have consumed them; Jeremiah 49:38 and I will set my throne in Elam, and will destroy from there king and princes, says Yahweh. The System Employed, with an Example1. Elam was at this time still under Babylonian suzerainty, which continued under his successor, Gimil-Sin, who also built at Susa, his vassal being Ebarti-kin-Daddu, viceroy of Susa. Growing up to help me remember it was "never eat shredded wheat," for you it may have been, "never eat soggy waffles.". The principality called Namar was detached from Susian territory and reunited to the domain of Babylonia. EPUB for Kindle - 12.98. We propose this because the land of Shinar is originally said to be in modern-day Sudan. Shinar was used early to describe the land which included the cities of Babel (Babylon), Erech (Warka) and Accad (Agade) within the kingdom of Nimrod (Gen 10:10). The Testimony of the Sculptures, etc. A Sumer. Mountain Ranges 4. Dungi has left evidences of his conquests in the buildings which he erected at Susa, but the principal buildings of this period were constructed by Ba-sa-Susinak, son of Simbi-ishak, viceroy of Susa and potentate in Elam. After the flood, God told Noah and his family to go out and fill the entire Earth with people. Chaldean domination, however, did not last long, for Dungi, king of Ur of the Chaldees, about 2500 B.C., invaded the country, accompanied by his vassal Gudea, viceroy of Lagas. Merodach-baladan, a pretender to the throne of Babylon, made common cause with Humbanigas, who fought with the Assyrian army at Der. The Primitive Tongue of Shinar:From the inscriptions it would seem that the primitive language of Shinar was not Semitic, but the agglutinative idiom now named Sumerian-a tongue long regarded as Turanian, and having, it is thought, Turko-Chinese affinities-gal, "to be," Turkish ol-mak; ama (ana), "mother," Turkish ana; abba, "old man," Turkish baba, "father"; (h)e, "house," Turkish ev, etc. Use. Because the wilderness of Sin is a large expanse of desert, then it's location is, in all likelihood, correct. God came down and gave them new languages which forced them to scatter throughout the whole earth. First Century Israel Map - It has been sought in the Orontes valley, between Antioch and Seleucia, and also at Wady Nahr el-Barid, leading down from Homs to the Mediterranean to the North of Tripoli. Defeat was the result, and he fled to Elam, there to be captured by Humba-haldasu and put to death. There is a remarkable contrast between the depths of the north end of the Dead Sea and of the south end. (See Gudea's remarkable statue in the Louvre. This was the first organized system of idolatry recorded after the flood. In Gen 10:10 it is the district wherein lay Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, cities which were the "beginning" of Nimrod's kingdom. Under a dominant Sem. Chedorlaomer, also spelled Kedorlaomer (/ k d r l e m r /; Hebrew: , Tiberian: Korl'mer; Vat.), is a king of Elam mentioned in Genesis 14. Sumer, which is the name for the area of ancient Iraq S of Baghdad in the eme.-ku dialect (written[r] ideographically or keir in fine Sumer. "See EDEN.4. ELLASAR. Notwithstanding this, however, Urtaku invaded Babylonia as ally of certain Chaldean tribes. The isobands you see on the map (gray areas with dark borders) attempt to give you confidence where a region is. Comparison with the Semitic Idiom7. ", shi'-nar (shin`ar; Senaar Sen(n)aar):1. ascribes kingship first to the city of Eridu and then in turn to Badtibirra, Larak, Sippar and Shuruppak. New Revised Standard Version the land of Shinar. Shinar was used early to describe the land which included the cities of Babel (Babylon), Erech (Warka) and Accad (Agade) within the kingdom of Nimrod ( Gen 10:10 ). No undisputed equivalent of the Heb. Encyclopedia. The Chinese affinities seem less close, but the following may be quoted: a(y)a "father," Chinese ye (Amoy ia); ge, "night," Chinese ye; gu, "to speak," Chinese yu; shu, "hand," Chinese sheu; kin, "business," Chinese kung, "work"; etc. According to the Bible, those who settled in the Land of Shinar "came from the East." This means that only a portion of Noah's offspring settled in the Land of Shinar. Naturally the Assyrians claim the victory, but the Babylonians say that they were defeated. the same as the Galilee of the Goiim ( Isa 9:1; RSV "nations"). For the rest, the principal differences between Sumerian and Semitic Babylonian are:(1) post-positional suffixes instead of prepositions;(2) verbs with long strings of prefixes and infixes to express the persons and regimens, instead of a prefix and a suffix;(3) compound words, both nouns and verbs, are common instead of being exceedingly rare. 5) and a-an-a-ra in Hitt. They found a plain in the land of Shinar. So it is plausible that there was a second region referred to as Cush (latter) located where the proposed Gihon River was, and as referenced in Genesis 2:13 or what became Elam. 2023 26 Apr. The City's Numerous Names:The consideration in which the city was held is made plain by the geographical lists, from which it would seem that it had no less than 11 names, among them being Illab or Illag, Tir-anna, "the heavenly grove"; Ub-imina, "the 7 regions"; Uru-gipara-imina, "the city of the 7 enclosures"; and Uruk-supuri, "Erech of the folds" (the name which it always bears in the Gilgames legend), given to it either on account of its being a center where pastoral tribes gathered, or because of the flocks kept for sacrifice to its deities.7. This is also implied by the fact, that Sen'ar was used in Syriac for the country around Bagdad, and in ancient times included (it may be supposed) the plain upon which the ruins of Babylon stand. (4) Elam Becomes Predominant 2280 Years B.C.It was probably shortly after this that Kudur-Nahhunte threw off the Semitic yoke, and, invading Babylonia, brought back much spoil to Elam. These deities were very numerous, and it is noteworthy that, though those with Sumerian names may be counted by hundreds, those with Semitic names are only to be reckoned by tens.8. In the fourth millennium b.c. Nabonassar and his successors seem to have contented themselves with the title "king of Babylon," rule in the city implying also the dominion over the whole country. The First Miracle at Cana. To show this the following transcribed example will probably suffice:13. The Ab-e-Diz, a river with a greater volume of water, is formed by the uniting of two streams above Dizful. This is the great temple-tower (ziq-qurat) of the place, called E-gipar-imina, "the house of 7 enclosures." There is no clear place where the Bible says that Noah and his family journeyed to after the Flood. Thus we are on the continent that we call Africa today. Another great ruler of the early period was Sin-gasid, king of Erech, who was a patron of E-anna; and when he restored this shrine, he endowed it with grain, wool, oil and 1 shekel of gold. The extreme length of the site from North to South is over 3,000 yds., and its width about 2,800 yds. This was in the time of the great Ur Dynasty, but later the city seems to have come under the dominion of the kings of Isin, Libit-Ishtar having apparently restored the sanctuary of Ishtar on E-gipara. Hallusu, king of Elam, on the retirement of the Assyrian troops, invaded Babylonia as being part of the territories of the Assyrian king, and having captured Assur-nadin-sum, Sennacherib's son, who had ruled in Babylon 6 years, carried him off to Elam, setting Nergal-usezib on the throne of Babylonia. The derivation of the name is well known, Erech being the Semitic-Babylonian Uruk, from the Sumerian Unug, a word meaning "seat," probably in the sense of "residential city." In January and February there are violent storms, and the night brings 8 degrees or 10 degrees of frost. ).Nimrod has not been identified with any mythical hero or historic king of the inscriptions. Humba-haldasu's two brothers revolted against him and assassinated him, and Urtaku, one of the murderers, took the Elamite throne. Genesis 11:4 - They said, "Come, let's build ourselves a city, and a tower whose top reaches to the sky, and let's make a name for ourselves, lest we be scattered abroad on the surface of the whole earth.".
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